Rational Drug Design

It is a process of discovery of a new molecule depending upon the target receptor. Generally, the drug is a small organic molecule that shows its action either by potentiation or inhibition of biomolecules that are present in the human body. While designing a molecule it is very important to take care of its shape […]

Bio-organic Chemistry

It deals with two fields biochemistry and organic chemistry. The biochemistry part deals with living processes using the chemistry of molecules. This stream tends to increase organic structure, properties of molecules, and synthesis knowledge towards biological phenomena. History: Dr. Margret was the first person who discovered the amino acid term when she was trying to […]


Hybridization is defined as the mixture of two different molecular orbitals to form a new orbital/hybrid having different energy and shape. Types: Sp, Sp2, Sp3, Sp3d, Sp3d2, Sp3d3. Sp hybridization: It is done by intermixing one ‘s’ and one ‘p’ orbital. Finally, originated hybrid has an energy of two different orbitals and hybrid is called […]

Combinatorial Chemistry

Definition: It is a method of preparation of a large number of compounds in a single process, libraries can be made either as a mixture or individual compounds which are developed by computer software. Techniques that are utilized for the identification of library components. These can be used for different fields. History: It is not […]


Carbohydrates are made up of three basic compounds that are oxygen, carbon, and hydrogen. Hydroxyl functional group is present whereas suffix -ose represents the sugar part. These are the derivatives of polyhydroxy aldehydes and ketones. Most of the carbohydrates are abundantly found and are the source of energy. These are classified into the following types: […]


Lipids are the heterogeneous compounds which are made up of fatty acids. Lipids are insoluble in water and soluble in organic solvents like chloroform, ether,  benzene, etc. These are nonpolar in nature. These are classified as waxes, glycolipids, acylglycerols, terpenoids, and sphingolipids. History: Lipids are regarded as a major concentrated storage form of energy in […]

Amino acids and Proteins

Proteins are made up of amino acids. It consists of C, H, N, O and other elements such as S, Fe, etc.  Proteins are classified based upon their components such as simple and conjugated proteins as well as depending upon their axial ratio these are divided into globular and fibrous. When proteins dissociated by the […]

Proton NMR Spectroscopy

It is widely known as nuclear magnetic resonance. It is based on the phenomena of absorption of electromagnetic radiations by the nuclei of an atom which are ranging in between 4 to 900 MHz that is a radio-frequency region. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance is one of the suitable techniques with which a number of hydrogen […]

Carbon-13 NMR Spectroscopy

Nuclear magnetic resonance of C-13 is an advancement of  NMR. It helps to detect carbon atom in a molecule or compound. A chemical shift in C-13 is as same as in proton NMR but it ranges from 0-220 ppm rather 0-12 ppm as in proton NMR. There is no carbon-carbon coupling in this spectroscopy because […]

Mass Spectroscopy

It is a spectrometry technique which is used to detect the molecular mass of the compound under analysis. When a sample is applied to mass spectrometry, it decomposes the sample into fragments and fragmented ions move according to their mass/charge ratio (m/e). The mass spectrum of each and every compound is different due to which […]