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Analytical Techniques Used in Organic Chemistry: Instruments for Molecule Identification and Characterization

Analytical Techniques Used in Organic Chemistry: Instruments for Molecule Identification and Characterization Analytical methods and tools are essential in organic chemistry because they allow the chemists to identify better, quantify and describe molecules. In this Guide, we will discuss some of the popular analytical methods and tools and how they enhance or advance our knowledge […]

How Organic Chemistry Plays a Important Role in Everyday life

Organic chemistry is considered hard to understand and a vague area of science, but it significantly affects our daily lives. From the food we eat and the drugs we take, the idea is that organic chemistry plays a significant role. 1. Pharmaceuticals Organic chemistry helps make pharmaceutical drugs tackle a wide range of health problems. […]

‘Alkyl Halide’ A Wonderful Organic Molecule

You can synthesize most of the organic compounds by using alkyl halides as a starting material. This property of alkyl halides makes it wonderful. In laboratory if you have alkyl halides with you that means you have most of the organic compound with you. Given transformations will unfold the wonder of alkyl halides:


Hydrocarbns means compounds made up of hydrogen and carbon, which can be further classified as aliphatic and aromatic compounds. Aliphatic hydrocarbons are further classified into families like: alkanes, alkenes, alkynes and cycloalkanes.

Free radicals halogenation of alkane

Free radicals are highly reactive species with unpaired valance electron. Carbon free radicals are formed during halogenation of alkanes and orientation as well as reactivity depends on the type of free radical. It is known as free radical substitution reaction.   Ease of formation of free radical: 3° > 2° > 1° > CH3. It […]


A tetrahedral carbon with four different substituents shows the enantiomerism with different three dimensional isomeric structures. The carbon bearing four different substituents is called as chiral or asymmetric carbon. A molecule with one asymmetric carbon shows two enantiomers which are mirror image of each other and non-superimposable. Enantiomers are optically active and they rotate the […]


A different arrangement of the atoms in the space by rotation about the carbon-carbon single bond is known as conformers and collectively called as conformational isomers. These are inter-convertible by rotation of single bond. The simplest molecules show conformation is ethane (CH3CH3).  The conformer I is called as Staggered conformation and II is called as […]

Absolute Configuration

An arrangement of the atoms in the space attached to a chiral carbon is referred as configuration and most commonly expressed by absolute configuration as “R” and “S.” The absolute configuration assigned by CIP system given by three organic chemists named as R.S. Cahn, C.K. Ingold, and V. Prelog. A CIP nomenclature includes the assignment of a prefix […]

Elimination Reactions

As the name indicates, small molecule eliminates during these types of reactions.  This small molecule is generally water (-H2O) in the case of dehydration or HX in the case of dehydrohalogenation.  A 1, 2-elimination suggests that the atoms that are eliminated