Hydrogen bonding is the electrostatic force of attraction and it occurs between hydrogen and more electronegative atoms (like F, N and O) and that too covalently bound atoms. Two atoms- one is hydrogen bond acceptor and other hydrogen bond donor.
Fig: Water molecule showing intermolecular hydrogen bonding
Hydrogen bonding is of two types:
- Intermolecular: it occurs within two molecules.
- Intramolecular: it occurs within a single molecule.
Hydrogen bonding is stronger than Vander Waal forces but weaker than that of ionic and covalent bonds.
Following are the characters of compounds having hydrogen bonding:
- High boiling point due to intermolecular bonding because it requires more energy to break the hydrogen bond.
- Size of atom and electronegativity are the factors affect hydrogen bonding.