Hydrogen Bond

Hydrogen bonding is the electrostatic force of attraction and it occurs between hydrogen and more electronegative atoms (like F, N and O) and that too covalently bound atoms. Two atoms- one is hydrogen bond acceptor and other hydrogen bond donor.

Fig: Water molecule showing intermolecular hydrogen bonding

Hydrogen bonding is of two types:

  • Intermolecular: it occurs within two molecules.
  • Intramolecular: it occurs within a single molecule.

Hydrogen bonding is stronger than Vander Waal forces but weaker than that of ionic and covalent bonds.

Following are the characters of compounds having hydrogen bonding:

  • High boiling point due to intermolecular bonding because it requires more energy to break the hydrogen bond.
  • Size of atom and electronegativity are the factors affect hydrogen bonding.