In NMR, the electric field is applied to the sample and the nearby proton aligned themselves in the same or different manner to the applied field. Splitting only happens between those protons of the same carbon which are not chemically equal to each other. Two magnetic fields felt by the proton due to which proton absorbs at two frequencies that lead to dissociation into two signals in NMR.
Splitting takes place in some specific pattern and some rules are there for splitting:
- In NMR spectra, the splitting pattern is generally shown in organic compounds.
- Only non-equivalent protons can split each other signals but not possible in equivalent protons.
- Non-equivalent proton split the signal of an adjacent proton into ‘n+1’.
- Splitting occurs only on protons of adjacent carbon or the same carbon having nonequal protons.